Matucana is a genus of cacti containing approximately 20 species of mostly globular plants. The genus is only known from Peru, mostly along the Marañón River.
The first species was discovered near the town of Matucana and described as Echinocactus haynii by Otto in 1849. Matucana was erected by Britton & Rose in 1922. The genus Eomatucana F.Ritter has been brought into synonymy with this genus.
Some species are endangered due to collection for the specialist market.